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Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice

Ella Anle Kasanga, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Robert Peter Biney, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Christian Agyare, Eric Woode.

Abstract
Background and aim: Potentially life-threatening and unpleasant side effects associated with some analgesics has fueled the drive for the search for more analgesics with better side effect profiles. Geraniin, the most dominant secondary metabolite in the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Phyllanthus muellerianus, has been shown to possess anti-nociceptive properties mediated partly by opioidergic mechanisms. The purpose of this study is to determine whether geraniin exhibits tolerance and if it is able to ameliorate withdrawal signs in naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.
Materials and methods: After chronic treatment of mice with geraniin orally, the formalin test was used to ascertain whether tolerance will develop to its anti-nociceptive effects and if there is morphine-induced tolerance cross-generalization with geraniin. The effect of geraniin on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in morphine dependent mice was also investigated.
Results: Geraniin (3 – 30 mg kg-1) did not produce any tolerant effects after chronic administration and there was also no cross generalization with the tolerant effects of morphine. Geraniin did not induce withdrawal signs but significantly reduced the number of jumps in morphine dependent mice.
Conclusion: Geraniin does not produce any tolerant effects like morphine and also reduced the signs associated with naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice.

Key words: muellerianus, naloxone, withdrawal, dependence, geraniin


 
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Pubmed Style

Kasanga EA, Boakye-Gyasi E, Biney RP, Kyekyeku JO, Agyare C, Woode E. Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 6(2): 199-205. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



Web Style

Kasanga EA, Boakye-Gyasi E, Biney RP, Kyekyeku JO, Agyare C, Woode E. Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice. www.scopemed.org/?mno=245486 [Access: November 19, 2017]. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kasanga EA, Boakye-Gyasi E, Biney RP, Kyekyeku JO, Agyare C, Woode E. Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2017; 6(2): 199-205. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kasanga EA, Boakye-Gyasi E, Biney RP, Kyekyeku JO, Agyare C, Woode E. Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. (2017), [cited November 19, 2017]; 6(2): 199-205. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



Harvard Style

Kasanga, E. A., Boakye-Gyasi, E., Biney, R. P., Kyekyeku, J. O., Agyare, C. & Woode, E. (2017) Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol, 6 (2), 199-205. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



Turabian Style

Kasanga, Ella Anle, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Robert Peter Biney, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Christian Agyare, and Eric Woode. 2017. Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 6 (2), 199-205. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



Chicago Style

Kasanga, Ella Anle, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Robert Peter Biney, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Christian Agyare, and Eric Woode. "Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice." Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 6 (2017), 199-205. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kasanga, Ella Anle, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Robert Peter Biney, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Christian Agyare, and Eric Woode. "Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice." Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology 6.2 (2017), 199-205. Print. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kasanga, E. A., Boakye-Gyasi, E., Biney, R. P., Kyekyeku, J. O., Agyare, C. & Woode, E. (2017) Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 6 (2), 199-205. doi:10.5455/jice.20161229015413





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